Prev Med. Developing multidisciplinary support platforms could be helpful in reducing the mental distress due to misinformation and teaching problem-solving strategies to cope with the pandemic (13). Kratom withdrawal symptoms are similar to those of opioids but with lower severity, presenting with transient gastrointestinal upset, muscle and nerve pain, insomnia, sweating, tremor, fatigue, and psychological distress including restlessness, irritability, increased cravings, depressed mood, and anxiety. These issues can also encourage shifts to more at-risk drug using behaviours such as use of drugs such as street benzodiazepines, and synthetic cannabinoids (31). Warning Letter, The Golden Road Kratom, MARCS-CMS 607627. For a better visualisation in mobile or tablet, please turn it horizontal. Psychiatry Res (2020) 289:113105. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113105, 17. In: Europol EMCfDaDAa, editor. Frontiers in Psychiatry ... McMahon LR, Prozialeck WC, Smith KE, Swogger MT, Veltri C, Walsh Z and Grundmann O (2020) Current and Future Potential Impact of COVID-19 on Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) Compared with historical Journal Impact data, the Metric 2019 of Frontiers in Psychiatry grew by 10.53% . Brain Res Bull. The healthcare workers who experienced sleeplessness were also more likely to feel depressed, anxious and have stress-based trauma, according to the paper. https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/covid-19-will-worsen-the-opioid-overdose-crisis-if-we-dont-prepare-now/ (Accessed May 25, 2020). Further, the initial rigid phase of the movement control order disrupted distribution of kratom supply from kratom plantations to consumers, chiefly among those who have been using kratom to self-treat SUDs. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): user demographics, use patterns, and implications for the opioid epidemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is already impacting drug markets, including shortages of numerous types of drugs at the street level, price increases for consumers on the black market and reductions in purity. European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Published on 06 May 2020. CDC, 2020; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Huang JZ, Han MF, Luo TD, Ren AK, Zhou XP. Collision of the COVID-19 and Addiction Epidemics. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.05.004, 5. Risks of severe COVID and intensified mental health issues in people who use drugs (PWUD) include: physical comorbidity, e.g., lung or cardiovascular disease, HIV, viral hepatitis infections; psychological comorbidity, e.g., general distress, sleep disorders, anxiety/mood disorders, psychotic symptoms; and homelessness, incarceration, economic difficulties, and socioeconomic issues deriving from drug addiction (8, 11, 27, 28). Cinosi E, Martinotti G, Simonato P, Singh D, Demetrovics Z, Roman-Urrestarazu A, et al. Zhu S, Wu Y, Zhu CY, Hong WC, Yu ZX, Chen ZK, et al. (2020) 22:19nr02507. Finally, cannabis appears to be less available, due to restrictions on movement across regions and borders under coronavirus lockdown. 3.360 10.53 % 3-année Journal Impact Journal Impact Classement 2020-21 Journal Impact Prédiction. Petterson S, Westfall J, Miller BF. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.045, 29. Supply and Use. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/topic-overviews/covid-19-and-people-who-use-drugs_en (Accessed May 19, 2020). Various internet studies found that some kratom users are concerned about the possibility of relapsing to opioids and/or seeking alternative, possibly questionable, sources of kratom if products become less readily available. 1. (2020) 208:107849. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107849, 8. Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7(6):547–60. Coe MA, Pillitteri JL, Sembower MA, Gerlach KK, Henningfield JE. doi: 10.1248/cpb.52.916, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, 2. Griffiths MD, Mamun MA. Front. Well Being Trust (2020) 8:2020. Frontiers in Psychiatry Guest Editor Impact Factor = 3.13. Impact Factor 2.849 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Drug and Behavioral Addictions During Social-Distancing for the COVID-19 Pandemic 23. According to a 2020 study published in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry, cuddling, snuggling, or spooning with your partner can actually help you sleep longer and more deeply. Loop enables you to stay up-to-date with the latest discoveries and news, connect with researchers and form new collaborations. Becker WC, Fiellin DA. Nonetheless, in the US it is estimated that 10–15 million people consume kratom primarily for the self-treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, to mitigate withdrawal from or dependence on opioids, and to self-treat opioid use disorder or other substance use disorders (SUDs). Drug Alcohol Depend. AG-R serves as a scientific advisor for ETHA Natural Botanicals, a distributor of kratom supplements. Issue 5: Traumatic Stress and Suicide After Disasters (2015). COVID-19 causes some illegal drug prices to surge, as supplies are disrupted worldwide (2020). Field Chief Editor Stefan Borgwardt at the University of Basel is supported by an outstanding Editorial Board of international researchers. Brain Behav Immun (2020) 87:100–6. Temps de Révision. Elderly suicide and the 2003 SARS epidemic in Hong Kong. Schifano F. Recent Changes in Drug Abuse Scenarios: The New/Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Phenomenon. J Subst Use. Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7(5):390. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30142-5, Keywords: COVID-19, addiction, mental health, drug abuse, prescription drug misuse, Citation: Chiappini S, Guirguis A, John A, Corkery JM and Schifano F (2020) COVID-19: The Hidden Impact on Mental Health and Drug Addiction. ISSN: 1664-1078 . Wand APF, Zhong B-L, Chiu HFK, Draper B, De Leo D. Covid-19: The implications for suicide in older adults. https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/faqs-for-oud-prescribing-and-dispensing.pdf (Accessed May19, 2020). Received: 13 June 2020; Accepted: 20 July 2020;Published: 29 July 2020. During the COVID pandemic, telehealth has demonstrated to enable continuity of services, while protecting service providers from infection. Encephale (2020) 46(3S):S3–S13. Mental Health and the Covid-19 Pandemic. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry (2006) 21(2):113–8. United Nations (UN). Gunnell D, Appleby L, Arensman E, Hawton K, John A, Kapur N, et al. The Journal Impact 2019-2020 of Frontiers in Psychiatry is 3.360, which is just updated in 2020. Volkow ND. JH is an employee of Pinney Associates which provides consulting services on the development and regulation of pharmaceuticals, cannabinoids, and dietary supplements including kratom and advises the American Kratom Association on Kratom science. Impact; Frontiers In and Loop are registered trade marks of Frontiers Media SA. In line with this, rogue/illicit pharmaceutical products, such as benzodiazepines, has also reportedly doubled their prices in some areas (24). Virtually perfect? among regular users in Malaysia. COVID-19, together with general environmental factors, such as stress or trauma, may contribute to both a mental illness and a SUD developing. The Internet will likely be an increasing method for monitoring sales, user reaction to COVID-19, issues related to supply, and motivations for use during the pandemic. Kruegel AC, Grundmann O. Thakur V, Jain A. COVID 2019-Suicides: A global psychological pandemic. Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M. D., on the Agency's Scientific Evidence of the Presence of Opioid Compounds in Kratom, Underscoring Its Potential for Abuse. Zhuo K, Gao C, Wang X, Zhang C, Wang Z. With an Impact Factor of 2.857, Frontiers in Psychiatry is the 4th most-cited open-access journal in its field Journal impact: Frontiers in Endocrinology July 6, 2018 Projected Deaths of Despair During the Coronavirus Recession. Disrupted trade routes via sea or air have been reported for some kratom products, although it is unknown to what degree this has impacted global kratom supply to date. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Impact Factor, IF, number of article, detailed information and journal factor. Similarly, due to COVID-19, manual laborers who were daily wage earners lost their income and could not afford kratom products to self-treat medical conditions. The Journal Impact Quartile of World Psychiatry is Q1 . Ensuring mental health care during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France: A narrative review. doi: 10.4088/JCP.20com13370. Silver Spring, MD: US Food & Drug Administration (2019). Journal Impact 2019-20; Frontiers in Psychiatry; Abréviation. DS and OG conceptualized the paper. Journals range from life sciences and health to engineering, robotics and humanities. Consumer Alert on COVID-19 Claims and Kratom Haymarket, Haymarket, VA: American Kratom Association (2020). The data generated in this study is subject to the following licenses/restrictions: Datasets are on a secured cloud drive as part of larger datasets. (25), among the first-line medical staff of a Tertiary Infectious Disease Hospital for COVID-19 in China, the incidence of anxiety and post traumatic symptoms in female medical staff was higher than that in male, and in nurses more represented than that in doctors (25). Psychiatry Res (2020) 28:113145. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113145. 17 Frontiers in Psychiatry Journal Impact 2019-20. This is a serious concern as kratom, not currently regulated as a dietary supplement, may be adulterated by unscrupulous traders and cause users to relapse to opioid use and inevitably experience a significant increase in overdose risk (7, 9, 14–17). IF . Import Alert 54-15. 19. Though kratom vendors noticed an increased demand for kratom products among users in recent months, they did not perceive that the increase was associated with a novel indication or different uses of kratom. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users. Received: 24 June 2020; Accepted: 05 November 2020; Published: 26 November 2020. Given the limited number of kratom users informally consulted (n = 42), these anecdotes cannot be generalized. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2003539, 37. FDA. Psychiatry and Mental Health: Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. In: Research CfDEa, editor. doi: 10.12659/MSMBR.924085, 24. 31. Kratom users also provided us with information on the state of kratom supply and personal consumption. Psychiatry 11:574483. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.574483. https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/05/1063512 (Accessed May 25, 2020). Often overlooked in this scenario are those with SUD (26, 27), who may experience: (a) changes in levels of drug use—an increase is often seen as a reactive behaviour to negative impact of disasters; (b) a shift to other substances if access to those previously used become limited; (c) a relapse, if they had already recovered from alcohol/drug addiction. Based on import and sales of kratom, there are an estimated 10–15 million kratom users in the US, meaning that disruptions for even a small proportion of regular users could result in an outsized effect (25). Most US kratom users did not discuss difficulties with obtaining kratom products from their usual sources since the outbreak of COVID-19 in their respective locality. Although the obtained information is anecdotal, we were able to solicit informal accounts from kratom growers in Malaysia and vendors in the United States (Arizona, Florida, and Illinois) and Europe. 21. The widespread use of kratom and consistent reports of its benefits or therapeutic value that are important to users raises the question: would sudden decreases in the availability of the plant have negative impacts on kratom users? Impact Factor. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1, 3. Reduced kratom access may also negatively impact the well-being of individuals who use kratom for the acute relief of psychological distress at a time of increasing socioeconomic uncertainty and stress. En comparación con el Metric de Impacto histórico, el Metric de Impacto 2019 de Frontiers in Psychiatry creció un 10.53 %.El cuartil del Metric de impacto de Frontiers in Psychiatry es Q1. Garcia-Romeu A, Cox DJ, Smith KE, Dunn KE, Griffiths RR. Silver Spring, MD: Food and Drug Administration (2020). ISSN: 1662-5129. 15. WHO. Epidemiology for public health. Reger MA, Stanley IH, Joiner TE. doi: 10.4088/PCC.19nr02507, 12. One of its very first accepted articles, before the new journal was officially accepting submissions, was a theory on the origins of autism by journal founders Kamila and Henry Markram. Similarly, community pharmacies are challenged by staff shortages, service disorganisation, and self-isolation (27, 29, 32). doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.03.007, 10. (2017) 176:63–70. Asian J Psychiatr (2020) 51:102073. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102073, 11. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care (2020) 9(3):241–7. Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with increased drug overdose deaths and that the reduced access to conventional treatment, as well as mutual-aid groups, is a plausible contributing factor (18), though it is unknown whether diminished access to kratom has explicitly contributed to any overdose deaths. Due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, a shortage in the supply of kratom products may place unexpected burdens on kratom users, potentially influencing some who use kratom for SUD self-treatment to regress to harmful drug use, hence increasing the likelihood of adverse outcomes, including overdose. Med Sci Monit Basic Res (2020) 26:e924085. (2017) 180:340–8. 33. www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/coronavirus.html. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): the evolution of an enhancer from a traditional use to increase work and productivity in Southeast Asia to a recreational psychoactive drug in western countries. The FDA is issuing warnings to such disreputable vendors and kratom advocacy organizations are condemning misinformation through consumer advisory postings, though the degree to which this misinformation is spreading to users remains unclear and if it differs by nation (21, 23). The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00748, 4. Frontiers in Psychiatry publishes rigorously peer-reviewed research across a wide spectrum of translational, basic and clinical research. Further information is also needed to improve our understanding on how the impact of COVID-19 is affecting kratom users in terms of obtaining unadulterated kratom products, as well as other important occurrences that could affect kratom supply, patterns of use and its therapeutic popularity among users. SAMHSA Disaster Technical Assistance Center. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/acmd-advice-on-covid-19-emergency-legislation-to-enable-supply-of-controlled-drugs (Accessed May 21, 2020). Curr Opin Pediatr (2007) 19(3):270–4. Loop enables you to stay up-to-date with the latest discoveries and news, connect with researchers and form new collaborations. Covid-19 will worsen the opioid overdose crisis is we don"t prepare now (2020). https://www.epicentro.iss.it/en/coronavirus/sars-cov-2-stress-management-healthcare-workers (Accessed July 7, 2020). https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/04/21/coping-with-the-collision-of-public-health-crises-covid-19-and-substance-use-disorders/ (Accessed May 19, 2020). JAMA Psychiatry (2020). Treatment of opioid use disorder and the COVID 19 pandemic: a review of the.... Have stress-based trauma, according to the pandemic are required social distancing restrictions, kratom also! //Www.Epicentro.Iss.It/En/Coronavirus/Sars-Cov-2-Stress-Management-Healthcare-Workers ( Accessed May 19, 2020 ; Published: 11 December 2020 2007 ) 19 ( )... By an outstanding Editorial Board of international researchers Media S.A prescription opioids a!, Burke RS, Laizer JT of translational, basic and clinical research staff in coming! 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